Posted by : Ahsan Khan Monday, 23 April 2012

The first central bank was established in Geneva in 1578. After the World War I, a conference was held in Brussels in 1920 and it was decided that every country must set up its central bank.
“Central bank is a special institution whose customers are commercial banks and state.”
According to R. P. Kent:
“An institution that is charged with the responsibility of managing the expansion and contraction of the volume of money in the interest of the general public welfare.”
State Bank of Pakistan:
Central bank of Pakistan is the “State Bank of Pakistan”. State bank of Pakistan was established on 1st July 1948. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinah performed its opening ceremony. Now, it is working under the State Bank of Pakistan Act 1956.
“It refers to the process whereby the total supply of goods and services of the society increases leading towards improved living standards.”
According to Micheal P. Todaro:
“Development must be conceived for as a multi-dimensional process involving major change in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of eco-growth, the eradication of poverty and reduction of inequality of wealth.”


State bank of Pakistan plays an important role in the process of economic development, which is clear from the following points:
1)      Issue of Notes
State bank of Pakistan has monopoly in issuing currency notes. 5, 10, 50, 100 rupee notes are issued by the bank on 12 July 1976.  Note of 500 rupee was issued on 1st April 1986 and 1000 rupee note was issued on 18th July 1987. At present note of Rs.5000 is also issued by the state bank of Pakistan. The state bank has three offices of issue, situated at Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.
2)      Banker to the Government
It is the bank of federal as well as provincial government. Its functions for the Govt. are:
·         Bank issued new notes on the behalf of government
·         Bank also accepts the government cheques and drafts
·         State bank responsible for transferring government funds at international level
·         Bank arranges the public debts of federal and provincial government
·         Bank receives no commission form the government
·         It holds federal and provincial government securities
·         State bank is liable for the payment of salaries and pension to government employees
3)      Banker’s Bank
State bank of Pakistan is the bank of all commercial banks working in Pakistan. SBP started to spend $ 24.00 million in October 2002, with the assistance of World Bank for data warehousing, networking, application of software and other banking solutions.
·         State bank provides loans to commercial banks at the time of need
·         Commercial banks re-discount their bills of exchange from state bank
·         State bank can sell, purchase and hold debentures of any banking company or of any other financing corporation
4)      Clearing House
State bank of Pakistan acts as the clearing-house for the commercial banks working within the country.
·         It shows the financial position of various banks
·         Clearing-house helps commercial banks to settle inter-bank transactions
·         It reduces the excessive use of cash
·         It controls the harmful competition among banks
5)      Advisor to Government
State bank of Pakistan works as an advisor to federal and provincial government.
·         It guides the government in financial and economic matters
·         State bank assists the government in various credit schemes
·         It informs the government about the monetary and fiscal situations of economy
·         State bank helps the government in making investments
6)      Lender of Last Resort
The state bake of Pakistan also acts as the lender of the last resort for the commercial banks. When commercial banks are in crisis and have shortage of cash, then state bank comes to their help. State bank may help the commercial banks by rediscounting their bills of exchange and by advancing loans against securities.
7)      Controller of Credit
A national credit consultative council was setup in 1972 for the purpose of monitoring and controlling credit. Credit and investment are the most important economic and fiscal variable. State bank helps to arrange the credit and investment facilities. State bank has adopted following tools to control credit:
·         Open market operation
·         Bank rate policy
·         Changes in reserves ratio
·         Changes in margin requirements
·         Change in liquidity ratio
·         Moral persuasion and publicity
8)      Economic Growth
State bank of Pakistan played a very significant role in the growth of the banking infrastructure. It gives special importance towards the development of capital market in the country. It also provides assistance to the government in development planning and poverty reduction programmes. All this results in economic growth and development. Real GDP growth rate is 2.4 % during FY 2010-11.
9)      Growth of Credit Institutions
State bank develops the atmosphere for the development of credit institutions. Such credit institutions are very useful for meeting medium and long-term credit needs of various economic sectors. These institutions are included HBFC, ICP, NDFC, EPF, NIT, IDBP & ZTBL etc.
10)  Growth of Money Market
Money market is not at its best level in Pakistan. Due to illiteracy banking situations are not favourable. State banks give much importance in the growth and development of money market. Economic development is impossible without the growth of money market. Growth rate of banking sector is 17.0%.
11)  Value of Rupee
State bank of Pakistan is responsible for the maintenance of the external value of rupee. State bank is the controller of exchange rate in the country. Till September 1971, Pakistani rupee remained linked to UK Pound and it was de-linked from pound and linked to US Dollar.
12)  Special Funds for Development
The major aim of state bank is not to earn profit. But its effective working gives him huge amount of profit. These profits are allocated towards establishment of various funds for economic progress and prosperity. It established Rural Credit Fund in 1961 and Export Credit Fund in 1972.
13)  Debts Management
Our scarce resources and government polices are not able to run the mega projects which needed heavy amount of resources. Due to shortage of resources government has to depend upon other rich nations. All these arrangement are the responsibility of the state bank on the behalf of government.
14)  Foreign Exchange Reserves
State bank of Pakistan is also the custodian of gold, silver and foreign exchange reserves. It regulates foreign exchange reserve in accordance with foreign exchange Act 1947. Pakistan has shortage in foreign exchange reserves. Its volume of foreign exchange reserves is only $12.34 billion in 2007-08. In July 2007, foreign exchange reserves were $15.646 billion out of which state bank of Pakistan has $ 4.3213 billion. At present foreign exchange reserves of Pakistan are $ 17.1 billion.
15)  Exchange Centre
State bank issued licenses to different commercial banks to hold foreign exchange. Such license holders can also deal in foreign exchange at authorized rates. These exchange centres are very helpful in mobilizing the resources.
16)  International Relations
State bank of Pakistan maintains relations with different international financial institutions such as IMF, WBG, etc. It negotiates different contracts with these institutions on the behalf of government.
17)  Economic Information
State bank collects the information all over the country and world throughout the year. It also annually published its report, which is an extremely important document. This exact information is very helpful in making economic planning which is necessary for the economic development.

            All above points are showing that state bank of Pakistan has an important position in our economic and financial infrastructure. Without an effective role of state bank, economic development is impossible.

{ 7 comments... read them below or Comment }

  1. thanks for providing that useful Information :)

  2. was enough helful to make my assignment according to topic....

  3. its my assignment and now i have to just copy paste it
    Thanks alot.....

  4. i would like to ask a question if you can kindly answer it..
    How might the state bank move the economy from one point of the Phillips curve to another?

  5. Very good written article. It will be supportive to anyone who utilizes it, including me. Keep doing what you are doing – can’r wait to read more posts. finance assignment help



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