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- Basic dictionary of economic terms for intermediate level
Posted by : Ahsan Khan Wednesday, 28 December 2011
Absolute (pure) monopoly. A situation where single firm is the sole producer of a product for which there are no close substitutes.
Advalorem Duty & Taxation. The imposition of a tax or duty on goods in proportion to their value.
Aggregate Demand. A schedule or curve that shows the total quantity of goods and services demanded at different price levels.
Aggregate Supply. Total value of all goods and services produced in the economy.
Anti-dumping Duty. A tariff imposed to discourage Dumping.
Arc elasticity. The proportionate change in the quantity demanded resulting from appreciable proportionate change in price.
Asset. Anything of monetary value owned by a firm or individual.
Assumption. Something taken for granted or accepted as true without proof; a supposition. Something taken to be true without proof .
Balance budget. A budget in which the tax revenues of the government are exactly equal to the total expenditures of the government.
Balance of Payment. A country’s record of international trading, borrowing and lending of visible and invisible goods.
Balance of Trade. The value of visible exports minus the value of visible imports.
Barter. The direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services.
Billion. The cardinal number equal to 109. A billion is a thousand millions.
(1,000 ´ 10,00,000 = 1000,000,000)
Bond. A document, by signing which an obligation is made to pay a specified sum in the future.
Black Market. Illegal trading in which the price charged exceeds the legally fixed price ceiling.
Break-even Point. Make neither profit nor loss. A balance of investment and return.
Break even output. Any output level at which a firm’s total cost and total revenue are equal. -OR- An output at which a firm has neither economic profit nor loss rather it earns only normal profit.
Budget. It is the financial statement, which is showing the record of revenues and expenditures.
Budget line. The line showing the choice of various combinations of goods and services that can be purchased by a household within a given budget.
Business. A legal profit making activity, where loss is also expected.
Business cycle. A cyclic but irregular expansion and contraction of economic activity.
Capital. Assets to be used in the production of further assets, money and property available for business use.
Capitalism. An economic system in which free market forces determine the prices in goods and factor markets.
Capital Account. Capital account, which includes both long-term and short-term capital movements inside and outside the country.
Capital Formation/Accumulation. An increase in the stock of real capital in an economy.
Capital Goods. The goods which are not directly consumed to satisfy human wants and these are used to produce further goods are called capital goods.
Capital Intensive. Capital intensive refers to the use of more capital than labour in any production process.
Capital Market. A network of institutions through which the savings and surplus funds of the economy are channeled to commerce and industry, local and central government, both domestic and foreign.
Capital output ratio (COR). It is the ratio between investment and output or how many units of capital are required to produce one unit of output.
Cardinal number. Number denoting quantity (1, 2, 3, etc.), as opposed to an ordinal number. (Classical economics)
Cartel. A group of producers that enter into agreement to maximize their profits by increasing prices and limiting output.
Cash or non-food crops. Cash crops refer to all those crops which, are produced for the purpose, to earn foreign exchange and not for the livestock only. For example, cotton, rice, sugarcane, tobacco etc.
Ceiling price. A legally established maximum price for a good or service.
Ceteris Paribus. A Latin phrase meaning “Other things being equal” ---- all other things remaining same.
Change. Change means variation, it includes both increase and decrease.
Cheap Money. This term is sometimes used to describe money, the value (purchasing power) that is low.
Circular flow of income. A circular, showing goods and services flow in one side and money payments flow on the other, showing equality of income and expenditure.
Classical Economics. The macroeconomics theories accepted by most economists before 1930’s that led to the conclusion that a capitalistic economy was self-regulation and usually working at full employment of resources.
Closed down point. A situation in which full fixed cost and some portion of variable cost shifts into loss. In this case firm has to leave the industry forever due to no possibility of profit.
Closed economy. An economy that has no links to the rest of the world.
Cob-web theorem. In economics, fluctuations occurring in markets in which the quantity supplied by producers depend on prices in previous production periods.
Collected at source. Amount of tax deducted at source, it refers to the tax deducted by the employer on the salary of the employee.
Commercial policy. A policy, to encourage exports and to check unnecessary import for the maintenance of favourable balance of trade & payment.
Commodity. Any material thing possessing utility and exchange value that is directly consumable.
Conclusion. The close or last part; the end or finish. The result or outcome of an act or process.
Consumer. One that acquires goods and services for direct use. Purchaser of goods and services for personal use.
Consumer’s behaviour. The behaviour of the consumer with regard to selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services for satisfaction of their wants is known as consumer’s behaviour.
Consumer goods. Products and services that satisfy human want directly.
Consumer equilibrium. A situation in which a consumer has allocated his income in the way that maximizes her utility.
Consumer surplus. The difference between the maximum that a consumer would be willing to pay for a unit a good and the amount that he actually pays.
Consumption. An act of consuming, consumer and producer goods. Use up goods and services in such a way that their marginal utility become zero.
Consumption function. Relationship between consumption expenditure and disposable income.
Cost. Total expenses to produce goods and services including money and time.
Cost push inflation. Inflation that is caused by an initial increase in costs.
Cross elasticity. When change in demand is due to change in prices of substitutes and complementary goods rather than change price of that commodity.
Curve. A line on graph representing data.
Current account. It includes export and import of all goods & services and transfer payments on receipts and payments sides respectively in the short time.
Custom duty. A duty or tax imposed on imported and, less commonly, exported goods. The governmental agency authorized to collect these duties.
Debt. Something owed by one person, or body, to another.
Debts services. The payment of interest on a debt, plus whatever installments of the principal amount are due.
Deflation. Contraction of economic activity and fall in price.
Deficit. A deficiency in monetary term. It usually refers to the amount by which liabilities exceed assets, or expenditure exceeds revenue.
Deficit budget. If the development & non-development expenditures of the government exceed its tax revenues, this situation represents budget deficit.
Deficit financing. This refers to the attempt to improve a depression by the deliberate spending, by the state, of more than it received in revenue.
Demand. Ability and desire to purchase goods and services.
Demand pull inflation. Inflation caused by an upward shift of aggregate demand curve while the aggregate supply curve remains fixed.
Demography. The study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution and vital statistics.
Demonstration action. People of developing countries want to copy the living styles of developed countries.
Dependent variable. A variable whose value depends upon another economic event or variable.
Depreciation. A decrease or loss in value, as because of age, wear & tear or market conditions.
Depreciation of Currency / Money. Depreciation of currency refers to the reduced purchasing power of money, which may be the result of an increase in the supply of money.
Deregulation. In this case of privatization, complete freedom is given to private sector, to invest in any field.
Devaluation. Lowering of exchange rate of the own currency in terms of the currency of other country.
Developing countries. A developing country is that, in which per capita income is low when compared to the per capita incomes of U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Western Europe.
Direct relationship. When both dependent and independent variables move in the same direction. For example, supply function.
Direct tax. A tax, such as income or a property tax, levied directly on the taxpayer.
Disguised unemployment. Marginal productivity of labour is equal to zero is called disguised unemployment.
Disposable income. Personal income less personal taxes (Income taxes).
Dualistic economy. Dualistic economy refers to the existence of advanced & modern sectors with traditional & backward sectors. Pakistani economy is also a dualistic economy as other developing countries
Dumping. The sale of a product in a foreign market at a price low that at which it is being sold in the domestic market.
Durable goods. Manufactured products capable of long utility, such as refrigerators, automobiles and electronics etc.
e.g. abbr. Exempli gratia (for example).
Economic. The general usage of this word is a description of something yielding enough to cover expenses.
Economic development. Development must be considered for as a multi-dimensional process involving major change in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of eco-growth, the end of poverty and reduction of inequality of wealth.
Economic growth. It can be define as, when there is an increase in the real national product of an economy.
Economics. The social science that deals with the choices people have to make in using scarce resources to meet their wants for getting maximum satisfaction. A science of production, consumption, distribution and exchange of wealth.
Economy. Efficient use of resources. An effective system of producing and consuming.
Economic planning. Economic planning consists in the extension of the functions of public authorities to organization and utilization of economic resources.
Economic wants. The wants, which require economic activities, are called economic wants.
Efficient. Effectively functioning, lowering the cost and increasing the profit in minimum time.
Employment. The state of being having a job. People able to work, willing to work and are working.
Entrepreneurship or Organization. The person or persons, who perform the function of enterprise. Who organized a business and enjoy profit or bear loss.
Equilibrium. Equality of distribution, where forces cancel one another.
Equilibrium price. The price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
Equilibrium quantity. That quantity on which demand and supply both are exactly equal to each other.
Estate tax / duty. A tax imposed on the right to transfer property by inheritance and assessed on the net value of a decedent’s estate before distribution to the heirs. Also called death tax.
EURO (€). The fifteen members of European Union Countries have singed in 1992 to use single currency on 1st January 1999. (The common currency unit used by 12 European nations the Euro Zone, which includes all nations of the European Union except Great Britain, Denmark and Sweden.)
Exchange rate. It refers to the price of one currency in terms of another, i. e., the proportion in which two different currencies are exchanged.
Explicit cost. Price paid on the use of those factors, which are not the property of the business organization. Opportunity costs that take the form of explicit payments to suppliers of factors of production and intermediate goods.
Export. Send to other country. Act of sending goods and services to abroad.
Excise duty. This is a duty imposed on home-produced goods and domestically provided services.
Factors of Production. The inputs – land, labour, capital and entrepreneur – necessary for the production of goods and services.
Farm mechanization. Farm mechanization means the use of advanced & modern machines and technologies in agriculture sector.
Federal budget. Federal budget is the annual statement of expenditures and revenues of the federal government with the laws and regulations that approved and support those expenditures and taxes.
Finance. The science of the management of money and other assets.
Firm. An institution that hires productive resources and produces and sells goods or services. An organized business. A large-scale undertaking with thousands of shareholders and employees.
Fiscal policy. Policy that is concerned with Govt. revenues and expenditure.
Floor price. A legally determined price above the equilibrium price.
Foreign exchange. This is concerned with the exchange of one foreign currency for another.
Foreign remittances. Foreign remittances or worker’s remittances are the inflow of earning from abroad to Pakistan.
Forex. In modern economics the term forex is widely used to represent foreign exchange.
Franchising. Under franchising, certain rights and powers are given to a corporation. It is authority granted to someone to sell or distribute a company’s goods or services in a certain area.
Function. A relationship between dependent and independent variable.
Giffen good. An inferior good taking a large share of a consumer’s budget and for which demand increases instead of decreasing when price rises.
Globalization. Globalization is a free trade, among various nations or all the countries of world, of goods, services and capital.
Graph. Diagram showing relations by lines. A drawing illustrating the relation between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axis.
Gross domestic product (GDP). GDP is the market value of all final goods and services produced during a specific period of time (usually a year) within the geographical boundaries of a nation. (GDP = GNP – FI)
Gross Income. An income before any deduction.
Gross national product (GNP). If we define GNP from market prices point of view the “GNP is the market value of all the goods and services produced in a country in a year.” (GNP = C + Ig + G + Xn)
Household. All the people living in one house and who make joint financial decisions represents household.
Human capital. Capital in the form of skill and knowledge that have been acquired through formal training or education or on the job experience.
Human resources. Human resources are refers to the population and labour force of a country.
Hyper inflation. Very rapid inflation. (Up to 100% increase in price level)
i.e. abbr. Latin. id est (that is).
Imperfect market. All market structures where pure competition does not exist. It refers to such a market where price level is not determined with the help of equilibrium of demand and supply.
Implicit cost. The monetary income of a firm that it sacrifices when it uses resource it owns instead of supplying the resource in the market.
Import. Bring in from abroad. An economic goods and services received from other country. Goods and services brought from foreign country.
Income. Financial gain earned or unearned over a given time period. Money received.
Income effect. The change in consumption that results from a change in the consumer’s income.
Indirect tax. A tax, such as a sales tax or value-added tax, that is levied on goods or services rather than individuals and is ultimately paid by consumers in the form of higher prices.
Individual demand curve. A demand curve, which shows the relation between the price of a commodity and the quantity of that commodity.
International trade. International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between two countries or among more than two countries of the world.
Intersection. A place or point where things intersect, especially a place where two or more curves cross or cancelled each other.
Infrastructure. An economy’s capital in the form of roads, railways, water supplies, educational facilities, health services etc.
Innovation. The act of introducing something new. Something newly introduced. The developed form of invention.
Interest. A fix charges to use borrowed money. A sum usually expressed as a “rate” or “percentage” paid for the use of capital.
Industry. A group of firms that produce identical or similar products. A group of firms of same type.
Independent variable. A variable whose value determines the value of another (dependent) variable.
Indifference map / set. The set of indifference curves representing different levels of satisfaction which can be obtained from different pairs of two commodities in different situations.
Inflation. A continuous rise in the general price level of all goods and services. Increase in price when money or credit increases. A fall in value of money.
Initial utility. The amount of satisfaction that is derived from the use of very first unit of any commodity.
Inputs. Goods and services required for production or to produce. An amount put in to output or for output.
Inverse relationship. It refers to the negative relationship, when dependent and independent variables move in the opposite direction.
Investment. Money put in an activity to make profit. Put in saving where profit expected.
Keynesian economics. The body of economic thought propounded by John Maynard (Lord) Keynes (1883-1946). The macroeconomic theory introduced by Lord Keynes which shows that a capitalistic free economy generally works at less than full employment level. To achieve full employment, Govt. intervention in the form of fiscal policy in required.
Kinked demand curve. The demand curve drawn for a market having oligopoly on the assumption that rivals of a firm will follow a decrease in price and will ignore a price increase.
Labour or Labor. The mental and physical skill of individuals, which is used to produce goods and services. The factor of production including all human economic efforts mental and physical applied to production of wealth.
Labour hours. It means the working time of labour.
Labour intensive. Labour intensive refers to the use of more labour and less of capital in any production process.
Land. All that is a free gift of nature, and useful to man. Free and useful gifts of nature, which are scarce. The economy’s natural resources, which can be use to produce goods and services.
Landlord. A person who owns some large areas of land and rents land, buildings or dwelling units etc.
Law. A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.
Leisure hours. When labour is not working, enjoying and passing time is called leisure hours.
Less developed country (LDC). (According to United Nations Experts)
A developing country is that in which per capita income is low when compared to the per capita incomes of U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Western Europe.
Limitations. The act of limiting or the state of being limited. A restriction. A shortcoming or defect.
Liquidity. An asset’s ability to be used directly as a means of payment.
Loan-able fund theory of interest. The concept that the demand for and the supply of loan able funds determines the equilibrium rate of interest.
Long run. A time period long enough to permit changes in both fixed and variable inputs. A time period in which all four factors of production are variable.
Macroeconomics. The study of the overall aspects and workings of a national economy.
Management. The act, manner, or practice of managing; handling, supervision, or control.
Manufacturing industry. An industry in which raw material is converted into finished goods through some particular process is called manufacturing industry.
Marginal. Net change in total -------------------- due to next ------------------.
Marginal cost. The cost of producing one more unit of a good or service.
Marginal efficiency of capital. It refers to the return on invested amount of capital.
Marginal product. Extra output produced as a result of a small increase in the variable input.
Marginal revenue. Change in total revenue received from selling one additional unit of output.
Marginal rate of substitution. The rate of exchange between two commodities like ‘X’ and ‘Y’.
Marginal utility. Net change in total utility resulting from a one-unit increase in the quantity consumed.
Market. An arrangement for buyers and sellers to get information and do business with each other. The world of commercial activity. Where goods and services are bought and sold. Place for selling and buying.
Market demand curve. The horizontal summation of the demand curves of all the individual customers.
Market forces. Forces of demand and supply, which determine price of a product in the market.
Market imperfection. The inability of a market to bring about the allocation of resources that best satisfies the wants of society. It refers to the all market structures but perfect competition.
Microeconomics. The study of the operation of the components of a national economy.
Million. The cardinal number equal to 106. (1000 ´ 1000 = 10,00,000)
Money. Any item that is generally acceptable to sellers in exchange for goods and services.
Money market. The market in which the demand for and the supply of money determine the rate of interest in the economy.
Monetary policy. Monetary policy can be used as a means towards achieving the ultimate economic objectives for inflation, balance of payment, full employment and real economic growth.
Monopoly. A firm that produces and sells a commodity, which has no close substitute.
Monopsony. A market structure in which there is only sing buyer of some sellers and producers.
Multilateral. An agreement between more than two countries whereby they trade with each other.
Mutual fund. A financial institution that obtains funds by selling shares and that uses these funds to buy liquid assets like government treasury bills.
Nationalization. The public ownership and control of industry formerly owned by private interests. The taking over of private property by a national government.
National income (NI). National income is the total market value of all final goods and services produced during a year by an economy.
Natural resources. This term is identical in meaning with that of land, that is the wealth freely supplied by nature.
Negative slope. Downward slope of a curve from left to right. (Demand curve)
Net national product (NNP). The net value of final goods and services produced in a country during a year is called NNP. (NNP = GNP - D)
Nominal income. Money wages, nominal wages or nominal income is the actual amount, in monetary units, received as income.
Normative economics. A type of theoretical economics in which facts are observed, analyzed and advice is given about their effects represents normative economics.
Numerator. An expression to be divided by another, a dividend. The expression written above the line in a common fraction to indicate the number of parts of the whole.
Opportunity cost. This involves measuring the cost of anything in terms of the most desirable alternative, or gain, foregone.
Optimum level. This is achieved when the most favourable economic conditions apply such as resources are used in their best ways.
Ordinal number. Number defining position in a series, e.g., “first”, “second”, “third”, etc. (neo-classical economics)
Output. Some thing as a result of input. An amount produced during a certain time by physical or mental skill or by machine or factory.
Perishable goods. All those goods, which cannot be stored for a long time period. Those goods, which maintain their freshness for some hours or some days.
Per capita income (PCI). Per Capita Income means the average income of whole population in a country in a year.
(PCI for 2010 = National income for 2010 ¸ Population in 2010)
Point elasticity. The proportionate change in the quantity demanded resulting from a small proportionate change in price.
Positive economics. A type of theoretical economics in which facts are observed, analyzed and reported as they actually are represents positive economics.
Positive slope. Upward slope of a curve from left to right. (Supply curve)
Population Expulsion. The geometric expansion of a biological population, especially the unchecked growth in human population resulting from a decrease in infant mortality, increase in growth rate and an increase in life expectancy.
Poverty. The state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs.
Price. Money or amount required to purchase. An estimation of the value of an economic good in term of money.
Price discrimination. A market situation where a monopolist sells similar goods or services at two or more different prices.
Price maker. A monopolist who can fix any price for his product.
Price taker. A firm that cannot influence the price of the good or service it produces.
Privatization. Privatization is described as a process for transfer of state owned enterprises to private sector. So, privatization means end of state owned enterprise considering that job of a government is to facilitate economic activities rather to compete and interfere.
Producer. One whose activities result in production. A person or a organization that produce goods and services for sale.
Profit. Excess revenue over cost. The reward received by the entrepreneur after all other payments to factors of production have been made. The difference between selling price and cost price.
Rational. Sensible behaviour. Rejecting what is un-reasonable or cannot be tested by reason in religion or custom
Real income. As opposed to nominal income (the actual sum of money received as income), real income refers to the purchasing power of that income.
Rent. Payment for use of property. The income derived form the ownership of land and other free gifts of nature. According to Ricardo: “Rent is that portion of the produce of the earth which is paid to the landlord for the original and indestructible powers of land”.
Return. Term used to represents the output or production.
Revenue. Income before any deduction. The total amount received in exchange of goods and services, which is equal to price time quantity.
Rural credit. Rural credit means the amount of loans provided to rural areas, especially to poor farmers, to develop agricultural and non-agricultural equipments.
Sale. The exchange of goods or services for an amount of money or its equivalent; the act of selling.
Salinity. Salinity is resulted from water-logging. When the water on the surface of land disappears in reaction to sunlight and heat, there remains salty surface on ground, which does no allow the cultivation of crops and plants.
Saturation or Satiety. A situation shows maximum and constant total utility and zero marginal utility.
Saving. That part of disposable income to be used in future. That part of income, which is not consumed.
Say’s law. The classical view that “supply creates its own demand”.
Schedule. Plan for an activity or event. Usually a table listing quantities dependent on two or more variables.
Self-reliance policy. It means self-dependence policy, adjust the economic and non-economic needs according to the self or internal resources of country.
Short run. A period of time in which producers are able to change the quantities of some but not all of the resources they use. A time period in which labour is the only variable factor of production. A time period in which at-least one factor of production is fixed.
Shut down point. A situation in which firm covers only its variable cost and full fixed cost shifts into loss. In this case firm leaves the industry temporarily.
Speculation. Engagement in risky business transactions on the chance of quick or considerable profit. A commercial or financial transaction involving speculation.
Stagflation. Slow economic growth coupled with a high rate of inflation and unemployment.
Standard of living. A concept denoting the amount of material well-being to which a social group is accustomed.
Stock. A supply accumulated for future use; a store. The total merchandise kept on hand by a merchant, commercial establishment, warehouse, or manufacturer.
Stock exchange. It is a market where instead of goods and services, stock and shares are traded. Here inventors can sell or purchase shares, bonds or securities of different companies and corporate bodies.
Subsidy. Payment made by the Govt. to producers so that they charge lower price in the market. State assistance, in the form of money, for an industry.
Summing up. A summary, often including an assessment. End result or conclusion.
Supply. Offering goods and services for sale. The supply of an economic good is the amount of it that is offered for sale at a particular price and at a certain time.
Supply side economics. A view of macro economics that emphasizes the role of cost and aggregate supply in explaining inflation, unemployment and economic growth.
Surplus budget. If the tax revenues of the Govt. are higher than its development and non-developmental expenditures, this situation represent surplus budget.
Tariff. A tax imposed on imports especially.
Tax. A compulsory payment of money to the Govt. without receiving any direct benefit. Govt. charges against a citizen or income or property or any activity.
Technology. Practical application, of science to commerce or industry.
Technological efficiency. A situation that occurs when it is not possible to increase output without increasing inputs.
Terms of trade. Quantity of goods and services a country exports to pay for a unit of imports.
Theory. Something taken to be true without proof. Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances, especially a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena. Such knowledge or such a system.
Tola. A unit of weight used in Pakistan and India, equal to the weight of one silver rupee (11.7 grams or 180 troy grains).
Total revenue. The total value of a firm’s sales.
Trade. The commercial exchange of goods and services.
Trade-off. The sacrifice that involves giving up one thing to get something else.
Transfer payment. A payment of money to somebody for which the payer receives no return. Income transfer from one party to other without exchange of goods and services.
Trillion. The cardinal number equal to 1012. (1000,000,000,000)
‘U’ shaped curves. MC, AVC and ATC, curves are U-shaped due to application of laws of returns to scale or laws of cost.
Under developed countries (UDCs). Under developed countries are those which when compared with the advanced countries, are under-equipped with capital in relation to their population and natural resources.
Unemployable. This term is used for those who are physically or mentally unable to work.
Unemployment. The condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find any work.
Usher. Usher is a payment, one-tenth in case of Barani land (land irrigated by rain or natural spring) and one-twentieth in case of artificially irrigated land (land irrigated by tub-wells, canals etc.), made by the peasant of land to the Islamic government.
Util. A scale which is used to measure the utility is called util.
Utility. The benefit or satisfaction that a person gets from the consumption of a good or service. The power or ability of goods and services to satisfy a human want.
Utilometer. Classical assumption that each consumer can judge utility through mental level is called Utilometer.
Value. An amount, as of goods, services or money considered being a fair and suitable equivalent for something else; a fair price or return.
Variable cost. Cost that increases when output of the firm increases.
Vice versa. With the order of the terms changed, the other way round. [Latin, = the position being reversed]
Vicious circle of poverty (VCP). The less developed countries remain poor due to domestic obstacles. These obstacles act and react upon one another in such a way that they form a vicious circle.
Wages. The reward paid to the labor. The payment makes to workers for placing their skill and energy.
Water logging. Water-logging is the condition of land when the level of subsoil water increases and finally appears on the surface of land.
Wealth. Property that has economic utility, or money value or exchange value. Anything that can satisfy a want.
Zakat. Zakat is a transfer payment, which Sahib-e-Nisab Muslims make at given rates (2.5%), by themselves or through the Islamic state, to the poor and the needy in or after the month of Rajab.